Monosodium Glutamate Induces Changes in Hepatic and Renal Metabolic Profiles and Gut Microbiome of Wistar Rats.
Nutrients. 2021 May 30 ;13(6). Epub 2021 May 30. PMID: 34070818
The short- and long-term consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) increases urinary pH but the effects on the metabolic pathways in the liver, kidney and the gut microbiota remain unknown. To address this issue, we investigated adult male Wistar rats allocated to receive drinking water with or without 1 g% MSG for 2 weeks (= 10, each). We performed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomic study of the jejunum, liver, and kidneys, while faecal samples were collected for bacterial DNA extraction to investigate the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We observed significant changes in the liver of MSG-treated rats compared to controls in the levels of glucose, pyridoxine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, kynurenate, and nicotinamide. Among kidney metabolites, the level of trimethylamine (TMA) was increased, and pyridoxine was decreased after MSG-treatment. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that MSG-treated rats had increased Firmicutes, the gut bacteria associated with TMA metabolism, along with decreasedspecies. Our data support the impact of MSG consumption on liver and kidney metabolism. Based on the gut microbiome changes, we speculate that TMA and its metabolites such as trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) may be mediators of the effects of MSG on the kidney health.