Moroccan Propolis: A Natural Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antibiofilm againstwith No Induction of Resistance after Continuous Exposure.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 ;2018:9759240. Epub 2018 Nov 12. PMID: 30538767
This study was performed to evaluate the total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of twenty-four propolis samples from different regions of Morocco. In addition, two samples were screened regarding the antibacterial effect against fourstrains. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectra (GC-MS) analysis was done for propolis samples used in antibacterial tests. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC, MBC) were determined. The potential to acquire the resistance after sequential exposure of bacterial strains and the impact of adaptation to propolis on virulence using thewere evaluated. Additionally, the effects of propolis extract on the bacterial adherence ability and its ability to inhibit the quorum sensing activity were also examined. Among the twenty-four extracts studied, the samples from Sefrou, Outat el Haj, and the two samples marketed in Morocco were the best for scavenging DPPH, ABTS, NO, peroxyl, and superoxide radicals as well as in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide. A strong correlation was found between the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Propolis extract at the MIC value (0.36 mg/mL) significantly reduced (<0.001) the virulence potential ofATCC 6538 and the MRSA strains without leading to the development of resistance in the sequence of continuous exposure. It was able to impair the bacterial biofilm formation. The results have revealed that sample 1 reduces violacein production in a concentration dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. This extract has as main group of secondary metabolites flavonoids (31.9%), diterpenes (21.5%), and phenolic acid esters (16.5%).