Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.
Med Princ Pract. 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11. PMID: 28898884
OBJECTIVE: To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathologic changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; Group 2: fed a high fructose diet (HFrD), Group 3: fed normal rat chow and Mucuna pruriens, and Group 4: fed a high fructose diet and Mucuna pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured in one cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann Whitney-U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between two independent groups, and the Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than two independent groups.
RESULTS: Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in Group 2 than Group 1 (p<0.05). Free arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels in Group 4 were significantly less than Group 2 (p<0.05). Histopathological examination of Group 2 revealed extensive gliosis, neuronal hydropic degeneration, and edema. In Group 4, gliosis was much lighter than Group 2 and edema was not observed. Neuronal structures in Group 4 were similar to Group 1.
CONCLUSIONS: The HFrD increased the levels of free arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid probably due to membrane degradation resulting from possible oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The HFrD also caused extensive gliosis, neuronal hydropic degeneration and edema. Hence, Mucuna pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed with HFrD.