Multigenerational impacts of gestational bisphenol A exposure on the sperm function and fertility of male mice.
J Hazard Mater. 2021 Apr 1 ;416:125791. Epub 2021 Apr 1. PMID: 33839502
Md Saidur Rahman
Growing evidence suggests that developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA)-a synthetic endocrine disruptor-causes atypical reproductive phenotypes that may persist for generations. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which BPA causes these adverse consequences is unclear. Here, pregnant female mice were orally exposed to 50 μg, 5 mg, and 50 mg BPA/kg body weight (bw)/day from 7 to 14 days of gestation. Corn oil treatments were used as control. The first filial generation (F1) and F2 males were used to generate F3 by mating them with unexposed females. High BPA doses impaired F1 and/or F1-F2 (multigenerational effect) male reproduction (i.e., disrupted testicular germ cell organization and spermatogenesis, altered sperm biochemical properties, and decreased sperm count, motility, and fertility) but not that of F3 males (transgenerational effect). Moreover, the observed multigenerational transmission of the abnormal reproductive traits was associated with alterations in the sperm DNA methylation patterns of specific male generations, with substantial proteomic changes in F1-F3 at the highest BPA dose. Given that the proteins related to male fertility and epigenetic modification are highly conserved amongvertebrates, our findings may shed light on how exposure to environmental factors during pregnancy affects fertility in future generations in both humans and the other animals.