Musa acuminata and its bioactive metabolite 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural mitigates quorum sensing (las and rhl) mediated biofilm and virulence production of nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Jan 10 ;246:112242. Epub 2019 Sep 15. PMID: 31533077
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Musa acuminata, a tropical plant belongs to the family Musaceae. The fruit peels of this plant have been well documented for their therapeutic value in Asia and Africa. It has also been previously reported for numerous biological applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, itching, psoriasis and anti-diarrheal activities. Moreover, M. acuminata peels have been well known for its anti-healing and antiseptic properties and most commonly used for healing wounds and heat burns in South Asian and African traditional medicines.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the QS-mediated antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of M. acuminata, and its bioactive metabolites 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5HMF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The M. acuminata peel methanol extract (MAM) was evaluated for its antibiofilm potential against P. aeruginosa with increasing concentration. Besides, biofilm related phenomenon's such as total biofilm proteins, microcolony formation exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) productions were also examined to support the antibiofilm potential of MAM. Further, MAM was evaluated for its antivirulence efficacy against P. aeruginosa by assessing the protease, LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, alginate and rhamnolipid productions at 400 μg mlconcentration. Transcriptional analysis of QS regulated virulence genes expression level was also done by real-time PCR analysis. Then, the MAM was subjected to column chromatography for further fractions and the bioactive compounds present in MAM were identified by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Further, the major compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vaccenic acid and pentanoic acid identified from active fraction of MAM were evaluated for their antibiofilm and antivirulence potential against P. aeruginosa.
RESULTS: MAM significantly inhibited the biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa at 400 μg mlconcentration which also inhibited the production of biofilm proteins, biofilm adherence, EPS and CSH productions to the level of 79%, 82% and 77% respectively. Further, the antivirulence potential was confirmed through numerous virulence inhibition assays. The MAM at 400 μg mlconcentration inhibited the QS-mediated virulence production such as protease, LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, alginate and rhamnolipid productions to the level of 77%, 75%, 68%, 80%, 78% and 69% respectively. Moreover, the results of qPCR analysis confirmed the downregulation of QS regulated virulence genes expression upon treatment with MAM. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5HMF), vaccenic acid and pentanoic acid in MAM and the potential bioactive compounds with antibiofilm and antivirulence was identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, without exerting any growth inhibition in P. aeruginosa.
CONCLUSION: This study investigated the ideal antibiofilm and antivirulence potential of MAM and its bioactive compound 5HMF, and confirms the ethnopharmacological value of these peels against P. aeruginosa infections.