Naringenin and its Nano-formulations for Fatty Liver: Cellular Modes of Action and Clinical Perspective.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018 ;19(3):196-205. PMID: 29766801
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease mainly caused by high-fat diets and sudden feed changes, vitamin and energy deficiency, and inflammatory processes. Fatty liver leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma as well as liver failure. Lifestyle-modifying such as weight loss and a healthy diet have an inverse correlation with the risk of fatty liver. The promising effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits against fatty liver has been evidenced by several empirical studies focused on flavonoids. Among naturally occurring flavonoids, naringenin is one of the most important flavonoids which can be isolated from some edible fruits, especially citrus species.
METHODS: In the present review, we discuss the effects of naringenin and its nano-formulations against fatty liver disease and the proposed molecular mechanism of action. A large number of studies attributed to naringenin anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and insulin-like actions, as well as different types of effects on sex hormone metabolism and lipid metabolism. Naringenin-loaded nanoparticles have been used to solve the limited stability, solubility, bioavailability and pharmacological activity of naringenin and, consequently, to improve its therapeutic effects.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Naringenin exerts diverse biological actions including the decrease of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, increase of antioxidant defenses, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and modulation of signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism which can favor the oxidation of fatty acid, lower lipid accumulation in the liver and thereby prevent fatty liver.