Naringenin attenuates highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced sperm DNA fragmentations and testicular toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Andrology. 2018 01 ;6(1):166-175. Epub 2017 Nov 27. PMID: 29179260
M Y Adana
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has evolved over the years, leading to a boost in the quality of life in people living with HIV and AIDS. However, growing evidence has shown that highly active antiretroviral therapy has deleterious effects on the testes and the overall reproductive capacity. Therefore, this study is to determine the adjuvant potential of Naringenin on highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced perturbations in fertility of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups viz - Control; H: 30 mg/kg of highly active antiretroviral therapy (EFV, 600 mg + FTC, 200 mg + TDF, 300 mg); N40: Naringenin, 40 mg/kg; N80: Naringenin, 80 mg/kg; HN40: highly active antiretroviral therapy + Naringenin, 40 mg/kg; HN80: highly active antiretroviral therapy + Naringenin, 80 mg/kg. The rats wereeuthanized after 4 weeks. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in sperm count (p < 0.001), spermatozoa with normal morphology (p < 0.001) and progressive sperm motility (p < 0.05) of H compared to the control and the HN groups. Likewise, fragmentations increased (p < 0.05) in tail lengths of sperm DNA in H compared to control. HN40 and HN80 decreased tail lengths compared to H (p < 0.001). There was also a decrease in %tail DNA and tail moment in HN40 (p < 0.001) compared to H. Luteinizing hormone significantly increased (p < 0.05) in HN40, HN80, and N40 (p < 0.001) but decreased in H (p < 0.05) compared to control. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules also decreased (p < 0.05) in H compared to control, N80, and HN40. Likewise, the area of the seminiferous tubules in group H decreased (p < 0.05) compared to N80 and HN80. The seminiferous tubules epithelium increased (p < 0.05) in N40 and HN40 compared to H. This study establishes that highly active antiretroviral therapy has deleterious effects on the testicular microanatomy, sperm parameters, and sperm DNA of Sprague-Dawley rats, which may impair fertility but Naringenin is a potential complimentary adjuvant.