Naringenin Eye Drops Inhibit Corneal Neovascularization by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 11 1 ;58(13):5764-5776. PMID: 29117277
Ana P M T Oguido
Purpose: To investigate the effect of naringenin eye drops in corneal neovascularization induced by alkali (1 N NaOH) burn in mice.
Methods: Corneal neovascularization in the right eye of male Swiss mice was induced by alkali. Treatment with naringenin eye drops (0.08-80μg; 8 μL of 0.01-10 g/L solution) or vehicle (saline) started 2 days before corneal neovascularization was induced and was performed twice a day. Mice were treated up until the time animals were euthanized and cornea tissue was collected for testing, which was 2, 4, and 6 hours after alkali stimulus for cytokine and antioxidant capacity measurements, and 3 and/or 7 days after alkali stimulus for the assessment of corneal epithelial thickness and neovascularization, neutrophil, and macrophage recruitment, and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf), platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf), matrix metalloproteinase-14 (Mmp14), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (Pedf) mRNA expression.
Results: Naringenin eye drops inhibited alkali burn-induced neutrophil (myeloperoxidase activity and recruitment of Lysm-GFP+ cells) and macrophage (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase activity) recruitment into the eye, decrease in epithelial thickness, and neovascularization in the cornea. Further, naringenin inhibited alkali-induced cytokine (IL-1β and IL-6) production, Vegf, Pdgf, and Mmp14 mRNA expression, and the reduction of ferric reducing antioxidantpower and Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline 6-Sulfonic acid) radical scavenging capacity as well as increased the reduced glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups levels.
Conclusions: Collectively, these results indicate that naringenin eye drops are protective in alkali-induced corneal burn by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment, the proangiogenic factor expression, inflammatory cytokine production, and loss of antioxidant defenses.