Naringin in Combination with Isothiocyanates as Liposomal Formulations Potentiates the Anti-inflammatory Activity in Different Acute and Chronic Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
ACS Omega. 2020 Nov 3 ;5(43):28319-28332. Epub 2020 Oct 26. PMID: 33163815
Combination of drugs is extensively used to treat chronic inflammatory disease. Naringin (NAR), sulforaphane (SFN), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) are nutraceuticals with promising anti-inflammatory properties. However, their clinical effectiveness gets hindered because of low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In the current study, two combinations of liposome (NAR + SFN and NAR + PEITC) were prepared and studied thoroughly in differentmodels of acute and chronic models of inflammation. The encapsulation efficiency of NAR, SFN, and PEITC in the combination liposomal formulations (CLFs) prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl--glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl--glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine -020CN (15:4:1 M ratio) was determined to be 79.8± 4.2, 46.5 ± 3.6, and 78.5 ± 3.2%, respectively. The CLFs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The physicochemical results showed that the preparations were monodisperse (PDI 0.062-0.248) in water with an average size from 140.5 to 165.6 nm and a zeta potential of -47.3 to -53.3 mV. Dissolution studiesshowed a slower release of PEITC (>90%, 6 h) in comparison to that of SFN (3 h). Here, we are the first to report the antiarthritic activity of CLF of NAR + SFN and NAR + PEITC in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic model. At an intraperitoneal dose (375 + 375μg/mL) for 3 weeks, the NAR + PEITC liposome significantly improves both % paw edema and arthritic score compared to their free drug combinations in FCA rats. Most importantly, hematological and biochemical results showed improved anemic conditions with significant changes in the SGOT, SGPT, and ALP levels. The ELISA results showed similar trends of increased cytokine (IL-10) and decreased inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ). Histological evaluations showing reduction in cell infiltration, pannus formation, and bone and cartilage destruction further confirm and validate the antiarthritic activity of the CLF. This comprehensive study reveals the effectiveness of combination liposomes of poorly soluble anti-inflammatory molecules (NAR, SFN, PEITC) in the treatment of arthritis.