Natural Compounds Rosmarinic Acid and Carvacrol Counteract Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress.
Molecules. 2020 Apr 15 ;25(8). Epub 2020 Apr 15. PMID: 32326410
Aluminum accumulation, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in erythrocytes and brain and liver homogenates of BALB/c mice treated with Al(7.5 mg/kg/day (0.15 LD) as AlCl(37.08 mg/kg/day), whereas HCl (30.41 mg/kg/day) was used as Clcontrol, the treatments were performed for 21 days, i.p., in the presence and absence of rosmarinic acid (0.2805 mg/kg/day (0.05 LD), 21 days, i.g.) or carvacrol (0.0405 mg/kg/day (0.05 LD), 21 days, i.g.). The treatment with AlClincreased GSH concentration in erythrocytes only slightly and had no effect on brain and liver homogenates. Rosmarinic acid and carvacrol strongly increased GSH concentration in erythrocytes but decreased it in brain and liver homogenates. However, AlCltreatment led to Al accumulation in mice blood, brain, and liver and induced oxidative stress, assessed based on MDA concentration in the brain and liver. Both rosmarinic acid and carvacrol were able to counteract the negative Al effect by decreasing its accumulation and protecting tissues from lipid peroxidation. AlCltreatment increased CAT activity in mice brain and liver homogenates, whereas the administration of either rosmarinic acid or carvacrol alone or in combination with AlClhad no significant effect on CAT activity. SOD activity remained unchanged after all the treatments in our study. We propose that natural herbal phenolic compounds rosmarinic acid and carvacrol could be used to protect brain and liver against aluminum induced oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation.