Natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES)-based blueberry extracts protect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.
Food Res Int. 2020 Dec ;138(Pt A):109718. Epub 2020 Sep 22. PMID: 33292963
Dariane Trivisiol da Silva
Blueberry is a polyphenol-rich fruit bearing great bioactive potential. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) emerged as putatively biocompatible solvents that could substitute for toxic organic solvents in the extraction of fruit phenolic compounds for developing nutraceuticals or functional foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects and the biocompatibility of a blueberry crude extract (CE) obtained using NADES and of the extract fractions (anthocyanin-rich fraction - ARF; non-anthocyanin phenolic fraction - NAPF) in a model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. CE was the NADES-containing, ready-to-use extract that was obtained using choline chloride:glycerol:citric acid NADES (0.5:2:0.5 M ratio). ARF and NAPF were the NADES-free fractions obtained by solid phase purification of CE and were investigated to identify the bioactive fraction responsible for the effects of CE. Animals were treated for 14 days with water, NADES vehicle, CE, ARF, NAPF or lansoprazole (intragastric) andthen received ethanol to induce gastric ulcer. CE decreased ulcer index and preserved the integrity of gastric mucosa. The pretreatment with CE or ARF reduced glutathione depletion and the inflammatory response. All treatments, including NADES vehicle reduced protein oxidation and nitric oxide overproduction in ethanol-treated rats. Additionally, ARF increased short-chain fatty acids in feces. These findings suggest that NADES can be used to obtain biocompatible extracts of blueberry that exhibit gastroprotective effects with no need of solvent removal. The gastroprotective effects were mainlyassociated to ARF but NAPF and even NADES vehicle also contributed to some protective effects.