Natural flavonol fisetin attenuated hyperuricemic nephropathy. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Natural flavonol fisetin attenuated hyperuricemic nephropathy via inhibiting IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 and TGF-β/SMAD3 signaling.
Phytomedicine. 2021 Mar 22:153552. Epub 2021 Mar 22. PMID: 33994251
BACKGROUND: The naturally occurring flavonol fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), widely dispersed in fruits, vegetables and nuts, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects. Our previous study indicated fisetin ameliorated inflammation and apoptosis in septic kidneys. However, the potential nephroprotective effect of fisetin in hyperuricemic mice remains unknown.
PURPOSE: The current study was designed to investigate the effect of fisetin on hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN) and explore the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: The HN was induced in mice by mixing of potassium oxonate (2400 mg/kg) and adenine (160 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice. Fisetin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was orally administrated either simultaneously with the establishment of HN or after HN was induced. As a positive control, allopurinol of 10 mg/kg was included. Uric acid levels in the serum and urine as well as renal function parameters were measured. Renal histological changes were measured by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson's trichrome stainings. The expression of gene/protein in relation to inflammation, fibrosis, and uric acid excretion in the kidneys of HN mice or uric acid-treated mouse tubular epithelial (TCMK-1) cells were measured by RNA-seq, RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analysis.
RESULTS: Treatment with fisetin, regardless of administration regimen, dose-dependently attenuated hyperuricemia-induced kidney injury as indicated by the improved renal function, preserved tissue architecture, and decreased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Additionally, fisetin lowered uricemia by modulating the expression of kidney urate transporters including urate transporter 1(URAT1), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Moreover, hyperuricemia-induced secretions of proinflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) in HN mice and uric acid-stimulated TCMK-1 cells were mitigated by fisetin treatment. Meanwhile, fisetin attenuated kidney fibrosis in HN mice with restored expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I and fibronectin. Mechanistically, fisetin regulated the aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in the HN kidneys and uric acid-stimulated TCMK-1 cells.
CONCLUSION: Fisetin lowered uricemia, suppressed renal inflammatory response, and improved kidney fibrosis to protect against hyperuricemic nephropathy via modulation of STAT3 and TGF-β signaling pathways. The results highlighted that fisetin might represent a potential therapeutic strategy against hyperuricemic nephropathy.