Natural radionuclide of Po²¹⁰ in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia.
Environ Health. 2011 ;10:43. Epub 2011 May 20. PMID: 21595985
School of Environment and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.
BACKGROUND: Po²¹⁰ can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po²¹⁰ concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers.
METHODS: Concentration of Po²¹⁰ was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique.
RESULTS: The activities of Po²¹⁰ in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql⁻¹ whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg⁻¹. The ranges of Po²¹⁰ activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg⁻¹dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po²¹⁰ in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday⁻¹person⁻¹ and 249.30 μSvyr⁻¹ respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po²¹⁰ in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po²¹⁰ can be absorbed in the internal organs. The calculated values oflife time mortality and morbidity cancer risks were 24.8 × 10⁻⁴ and 34 × 10⁻⁴ respectively which also exceeded the recommended limits set by the ICRP.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this present study can be used to evaluate the safety dose uptake level of seafood as well as to monitor environmental health. However, as the calculated dose and cancer risks were found to cross the limit of safety, finding a realistic way to moderate the risk is imperative.