Nelumbo leaf extracts can ameliorate disease conditions involving chronic inflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Anti-inflammatory effects of Nelumbo leaf extracts and identification of their metabolites.
Nutr Res Pract. 2017 Aug ;11(4):265-274. Epub 2017 Jul 21. PMID: 28765772
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nelumbo leaves have been used in traditional medicine to treat bleeding, gastritis, hemorrhoids, and halitosis. However, their mechanisms have not been elucidated.
MATERIALS/METHODS: The present study prepared two Nelumbo leaf extracts (NLEs) using water or 50% ethanol. Inflammatory response was induced with LPS treatment, and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions were assessed. To determine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of NLEs, we measured nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. Major metabolites of NLEs were also analyzed and quantified.
RESULTS: NLEs effectively reduced the expression and productions of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO. NLEs also reduced NF-κB activity by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB phosphorylation. Both extracts contained catechin and quercetin, bioactive compounds of NLEs.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed that NLEs could be used to inhibit NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses. In addition, our data support the idea that NLEs can ameliorate disease conditions involving chronic inflammation.