Cognitive Enhancing and Neuroprotective Effect of the Embryo of the Nelumbo nucifera Seed.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014 ;2014:869831. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PMID: 25610484
Eun Sil Kim
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ENS on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine and its potential neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cell and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. ENS (3, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg), scopolamine (1 mg/kg), and donepezil (1 mg/kg) were administered to mice during a test period. Scopolamine impaired memory and learning in a water maze test and a passive avoidance test. The neuroprotective effect of ENS (10 and 100 μg/mL) was investigated on glutamate-induced celldeath in HT22 cells by MTT assay. We investigated acetylcholinesterase inhibition in hippocampus and antioxidant activity, ROS levels, and Ca(2+) influx in HT22 cells to elucidate the potential mechanisms of ENS. We found that ENS significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment andinhibited AChE activity in hippocampus. In vitro, ENS showed potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the HT22 cell. In addition, ENS induced a decrease in ROS production and intercellular Ca(2+) accumulation and showed DPPH radical and H2O2 scavenging activity. In conclusion, ENS showed both a memory improving effect and a neuroprotective effect. Our results indicate that ENS may be of use in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.