Nematicidal activity of 'major royal jelly protein'-containing glycoproteins from Acacia honey.
Exp Parasitol. 2018 Sep ;192:52-59. Epub 2018 Jul 21. PMID: 30040959
Parasitic nematodes infect more than two billion people worldwide particularly in developing countries. We previously reported nematicidal activity of natural honey using model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, characterization of nematicidal effects of natural honey and its glycoproteins has been carried out. Chromatographically separated honey glycoproteins showed potent anti-C. elegans activity (LD = 100 ng proteins/μL). Honey glycoproteins with molecular masses of ∼260 kD and ∼160 kD comprised of 'major royal jelly protein-1'-containing complexes. In these complexes, MRJP1 was present in different glycosylation forms. Quantitative PCR based gene expression assays described molecular functions of C. elegans affected by honey and honey glycoproteins. Expression of 14 gene transcripts associated with key cellular and molecular functions including energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, cell division, transcription and translation was analyzed. Acacia honey exerted a concentration-dependent alteration of gene transcripts involved in the citric acid cycle (mdh-1 and idhg-1) and cytoskeleton (act-1, act-2, and arp6). Likewise, MRJP1-containing glycoproteins caused down-regulation of arp-6 and idhg-1; and up-regulation of act-1 and mdh-1 gene transcripts. Consistent down-regulationof isocitrate dehydrogenase encoding idhg-1 gene which is among the rate-controlling enzymes of the citric acid cycle was considered as main biochemical factor involved in the nematicidal activity of honey and MRJP-containing glycoproteins. Acacia honey suppressed the expression of gene transcriptsencoding actin-2, while honey glycoproteins did not. Hence, honey partly exerted anti-C. elegans activity by decreasing the transcription of actin-2 gene transcripts, demonstrated by a defect in the movement and egg laying. Moreover, arp-6 gene transcripts encoding actin-related protein 6 was significantly and constantly down-regulated by honey and honey proteins.