Phytochemical analysis and nephroprotective effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes on sodium dichromate-induced kidney injury in rats.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Aug 7. Epub 2018 Aug 7. PMID: 30086244
Environmental and occupational exposure to chromium compounds, especially hexavalent chromium, is widely recognized as potentially nephrotoxic in humans and animals. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica against sodium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. The cactus cladodes extract (CCE) was phytochemically studied and tested in vitro for its potential antioxidant activities. Besides, the preventive effect of CCE upon sodium dichromate-induced renal dysfunction in Wistar albino rat model (24 rats) was evaluated. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the kidneys were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme analyses. The CCE content of phenolic, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compounds was considered to be important. Our results showed that 1 ml of CCE was equivalent to 982.5± 1.79 µg of gallic acid, 294.37 ± 0.84 µg of rutin, 234.78 ± 0.24 µg of catechin, 204.34 ± 1.53 µg of ascorbic acid and 3.14 ± 0.51 of β-carotene. In vivo, pre-treatment with CCE was found to provide significant protection against sodium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, preserving normal antioxidant activities and protecting the renal tissues from lesions and DNA damage. The nephroprotective potential of CCE against sodium dichromate toxicity might be due to its antioxidant properties.