Neuroprotective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.
Molecules. 2019 Dec 30 ;25(1). Epub 2019 Dec 30. PMID: 31905820
In the central nervous system, glutamate is a major excitable neurotransmitter responsible for many cellular functions. However, excessive levels of glutamate induce neuronal cell death via oxidative stress during acute brain injuries as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a major secondary metabolite of curcumin, and its possible mechanism against glutamate-induced cell death. We prepared THC using curcumin isolated from(turmeric) and demonstrated the protective effect of THC against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells. THC abrogated glutamate-induced HT22 cell death and showed a strong antioxidant effect. THC also significantly reduced intracellular calcium ion increased by glutamate. Additionally, THC significantly reduced the accumulation of intracellular oxidative stress induced by glutamate. Furthermore, THC significantly diminished apoptotic cell death indicated by annexin V-positive in HT22 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2, and p38 by glutamate was significantly diminished by treatment with THC. In conclusion, THC is a potent neuroprotectant against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the accumulation of oxidative stress and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.