Neurorescue activity, APP regulation and amyloid-beta peptide reduction by novel multi-functional brain permeable iron- chelating- antioxidants, M-30 and green tea polyphenol, EGCG.
Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Sep ;4(4):403-11. PMID: 17908043
Accumulation of iron at sites where neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to have a major role in oxidative stress induced process of neurodegeneration. The novel non-toxic lipophilic brain- permeable iron chelators, VK-28 (5- [4- (2- hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ylmethyl]- quinoline- 8- ol) and its multi-functional derivative, M-30 (5-[N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline), as well as the main polyphenol constituent of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which possesses iron metal chelating, radical scavenging and neuroprotective properties, offer potential therapeutic benefits for these diseases. M-30 and EGCG decreased apoptosis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in a neurorescue, serum deprivation model, via multiple protection mechanisms including: reduction of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bad and Bax, reduction of apoptosis-associated Ser139 phosphorylated H2A.X and inhibition of the cleavage and activation of caspase-3. M-30 and EGCG also promoted morphological changes, resulting in axonal growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) implicating neuronal differentiation. Both compounds significantly reduced the levels of cellular holo-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in SH-SY5Y cells. The ability of theses novel iron chelators and EGCG to regulate APP are in line with the presence of an iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of APP. Also, EGCG reduced the levels of toxic amyloid-beta peptides in CHO cells over-expressing the APP"Swedish"mutation. The diverse molecular mechanisms and cell signaling pathways participating in the neuroprotective/neurorescue and APP regulation/processing actions of M-30 and EGCG, make these multifunctional compounds potential neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, AD, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.