Nexrutine could be useful candidate agent for colon cancer chemoprevention and treatment. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Nexrutine inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt formation in rat colon and induced apoptotic cell death in colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2016 Aug ;55(8):1262-74. Epub 2015 Aug 10. PMID: 26259065
Colon cancer is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Therefore, new preventive strategies are warranted for preventing colon cancer. Nexrutine (NX), an herbal extract from Phellodendron amurense, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity for various tissue specific cancers, but its chemopreventive efficacy has not been evaluated against colon cancer. Here, we explored the mechanism of chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic efficacy of NX against colon cancer. We found that dietary exposure of NX significantly reduced the number of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. In addition, significant inhibition in AOM-induced cell proliferation and reduced expression of the inflammatory markers COX-2, iNOS as well as the proliferative markers PCNA and cyclin D1 were also seen. Moreover, NX exposure significantly enhanced apoptosis in the colon of AOM treated rats. Furthermore, in in vitro studies, NX (2.5, 5, 10 μg/ml, 48 h) decreased cell survival and colony formation while inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cells COLO205 and HCT-15. However, NX had minimal cytotoxic effect on IEC-6 normal rat intestinal cells, suggesting its high therapeutic index. NX treatment also modulates the level of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins along with cytochrome c release, cleavage and enhanced expression of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase as well as the catalytic activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9 in both COLO205 and HCT-15 cells. Based on these in vivo and in vitro findings, we suggest that NX could be useful candidate agent for colon cancer chemoprevention and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.