Niacin ameliorates hepatic steatosis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Niacin Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis by Inhibiting De Novo Lipogenesis Via a GPR109A-Mediated PKC-ERK1/2-AMPK Signaling Pathway in C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.
J Nutr. 2019 Dec 20. Epub 2019 Dec 20. PMID: 31858105
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Recent studies have demonstrated that niacin (NA) modulates hepatic DNL through GPR109A. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown.
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to elucidate the potential molecular mechanism by which GPR109A inhibits hepatic DNL.
METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and Gpr109a knockout (KO) mice (male, 5 wk old) were fed a high-fat diet (60% energy from fat) firstly for 6 wk to generate a diet-induced obese model. Subsequently, they were randomly divided into 4 groups for the next 8-9 wk: WT mice with oral water [WT + vehile (VE)], WT mice with oral NA (50 mM, dissolved in water) (WT + NA), KO mice with oral water (KO + VE), and KO mice with oral NA (50 mM) (KO + NA). Mechanisms were examined in HepG2 cells. Body composition, liver histology, biomarkers of hepatic function, lipid accumulation, and lipid synthesis signals in HepG2 cells were measured.
RESULTS: Upon activation, GPR109A apparently protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis (P < 0.05). The concentrations of hepatic Tnf-α in the WT + NA group were about 50% of those in the WT + VE group (P < 0.05). The activities of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were 26.7% and 53.5% lower in the WT + NA group than in the WT + VE group, respectively (P < 0.05). In HepG2 cells, activation of GPR109A resulted in remarkable inhibition of oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation via a protein kinase C-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: NA inhibits hepatic lipogenesis in C57BL/6 mice through a GPR109A-mediated signaling pathway, consistent with the mechanistic studies in HepG2 cells, suggesting its potential for treatment of NAFLD and other fatty liver diseases.