Nobiletin in Cancer Therapy: How This Plant Derived-Natural Compound Targets Various Oncogene and Onco-Suppressor Pathways.
Biomedicines. 2020 May 5 ;8(5). Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32380783
Cancer therapy is a growing field, and annually, a high number of research is performed to develop novel antitumor drugs. Attempts to find new antitumor drugs continue, since cancer cells are able to acquire resistance to conventional drugs. Natural chemicals can be considered as promising candidates in the field of cancer therapy due to their multiple-targeting capability. The nobiletin (NOB) is a ubiquitous flavone isolated from Citrus fruits. The NOB has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective. Among them, the antitumor activity of NOB has been under attention over recent years. In this review, we comprehensively describe the efficacy of NOB in cancer therapy. NOB induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. It can suppress migration and invasion of cancer cells via the inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-related factors such as TGF-β, ZEB, Slug, and Snail. Besides, NOB inhibits oncogene factors such as STAT3, NF-κB, Akt, PI3K, Wnt, and so on. Noteworthy, onco-suppressor factors such as microRNA-7 and -200b undergo upregulation by NOB in cancer therapy. These onco-suppressor and oncogene pathways and mechanisms are discussedin this review.