[A new strategy for preventive and functional therapeutic methods for dementia--approach using natural products].
Yakugaku Zasshi. 2015 ;135(3):449-64. PMID: 25759053
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a serious social problem in Japan. However, effective preventive and fundamental therapeutic methods for AD have not yet been developed. Using a new strategy in the course of our survey of numerous natural resouces having neurotrophic activity, we isolated a variety of active constituents and proved their pharmacological properties. As a result, we successfully found nobiletin, a compound with anti-dementia activity that comes from citrus peels. Also, we have demonstrated that nobiletin ameliorates cognitive impairment in several dementia model animals such as chronically amyloidβ(Aβ) infused rats, amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APPTg) mice, olfactory-bulbectomized (OBX) mice, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (MK-801)-treated mice, senescence-accelated mice and bilaterial common carotid arteries occlusion mice. In a APPTg mouse of AD, nobiletin greatly improved memory impairment, and this was accompanied by a marked decrease in Aβ deposition. Also, in OBX mice memory impairment was markedly recoverd by nobiletin, accompanied by improvement of a decrease indensity of cholinergic neurons. Interestingly, nobiletin improves age-related congnitiveimpairment and decreased hyperphosphorylation of tau as well as oxidative stress in senescence-accelerated mice. In cultured cells, nobiletin reversed the Aβ-induced inhibition of glutamate-induced increases in cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and modulated gen expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein and NMDA resceptor subunits. These results suggest that nobiletin prevents memory impairment and exhibits a protecting action against neurodgeneration in AD model animals. Nobiletin and citrus peels thus have potential as functional foods for prevention of dementia.