Non-absorbable apple procyanidins prevent obesity associated with gut microbial and metabolomic changes.
Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 10 ;6:31208. Epub 2016 Aug 10. PMID: 27506289
Several studies have suggested that flavan-3-ols/procyanidins are associated with a reduced risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of highly polymeric procyanidins (PP), which are major non-absorbable flavonoids, in the biological effects, is not completely understood. Here, we show that 0.5% PP administration for 20 weeks alleviated obesity and regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. PP-treatment attenuated weight gain and inflammatory effects including lipopolysaccharide and gut permeability. Additionally, metabolic urine profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry demonstrated that PP-treatment decreased the levels of endogenous metabolites associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the cecum demonstrated that PP administration markedly decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increased eight times the proportion of Akkermansia. These data suggest that PPs influence the gut microbiota and the intestinal metabolome to produce beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis.