Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries.
Molecules. 2017 Dec 21 ;23(1). Epub 2017 Dec 21. PMID: 29267231
Anthocyanins and flavones are important pigments responsible for the coloration of fruits. Mulberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, which have multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine. The antinociceptive and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids (TF) from black mulberry (MnTF, TF of Morus nigra) and non-black mulberry (MmTF, TF of Morus mongolica; and MazTF, TF of Morus alba 'Zhenzhubai') fruits were studied. MnTF was rich in anthocyanins (11.3 mg/g) and flavonols (0.7 mg/g) identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tunable ultraviolet/mass single-quadrupole detection (UPLC-TUV/QDa). Comparatively, MmTF and MazTF had low flavonol contents and MazTF had no anthocyanins. MnTF showed significantly higher antinociceptive and antibacterial activities toward Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus than MmTF and MazTF. MnTF inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phospho-p65 (p-p65) and phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα), and increased interleukin 10 (IL-10). Additionally, mice tests showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), rutin (Ru) and isoquercetin (IQ) were the main active ingredients in the antinociceptive process. Stronger antinociceptive effect of MnTF was correlated with its high content ofanthocyanins and flavonols and its inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway-related proteins.