Nut consumption might exert beneficial effects on the prevalence of NAFLD in males. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Nut consumption and the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12):e0244514. Epub 2020 Dec 31. PMID: 33382757
BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with reduced inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. However, the influence on the prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has yet to be evaluated.
METHODS: 4655 subjects were included as part of a colorectal carcinoma screening program (SAKKOPI) between 07/2010 and 07/2019 and analyzed 2020. Patients were characterized using biochemical and metabolic parameters, as well as a detailed questionnaire on dietary habits. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established using abdominal ultrasound. Consumption of nuts was graded as: no consumption or<1 time/week, 1-6 times/week, 1 time/day and≥2 times/day.
RESULTS: Mean age was 58.5±9.8years with a mean BMI of 26.5±4.7kg/m2. 2058 (44.2%) patients suffered from the metabolic syndrome, 2407 (51.6%) had arterial hypertension, 2287 (49.1%) showed prediabetes/diabetes, 1854 (39.4%) had dyslipidemia and 1984 patients (43.5%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (1219 [48.7%] vs. 605 [40.2%] vs. 189 [37.4%] vs. 45 [31.7%], p<0.001) and NALFD (1184 [48.1%] vs. 594 [40.7%] vs. 158 [31.7%] vs. 48 [34.0%], p<0.001). On multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders and dietary patterns, nut consumption≥1time/day was inversely associated with NAFLD in the overall cohort (adjusted Odds ratio[aOR]: 0.719 [95%CI:0.558-0.926], p = 0.011). However, following subgroup analysis, this inverse association was only confirmed in male patients (aOR: 0.589 [95%CI: 0.411-0.844], p = 0.004) but not in females(aOR: 0.886 [95%CI: 0.616-1.275], p = 0.515). Moreover, patients who consumed nuts 1-6 times/week had a significantly lower prevalence of advanced fibrosis (Fib-4 score>2.67: aOR: 0.551 [95%CI: 0.338-0.898], p = 0.017; Forns-Index>6.9: aOR: 0.585 [95%CI: 0.402-0.850], p = 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption might exert beneficial effects on the prevalence of NAFLD in males. The negative association with advanced fibrosis warrants further investigation.