Houtt Extract Attenuates Neuronal Loss and Glial Activation in Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling Model.
Iran J Pharm Res. 2019 ;18(2):812-825. PMID: 31531064
Inflammatory reactions are closely associated with the development and progression of epilepsy. It has been shown that inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are released from activated astrocytes and microglia, are considered to be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of epileptic disorders. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of nutmeg (Houtt), the present study was designed to investigate whether the nutmeg ethanolic extract could exert anticonvulsant and inhibitory effects on glial activation in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced mice model of kindling. Ethanolic extract of nutmeg was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 hour before PTZ injection or one week before PTZ as a separate group, to become fully-kindled. The chemical components of nutmeg extract were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Immunostaining against neuronal and glial markers was performed on hippocampus sections. GC-MS data indicated that the main components of nutmeg extract are myristic acid (39.93%), elemicin (22.16%) and myristicin (11.17%). Behavioral studies showed that pre-treatment of nutmeg extract effectively reduced seizures behavior, decreased cell death, and ameliorated glial activation that is followed by PTZ administration. In conclusion, nutmeg extract might be regarded as a useful supplementary agent in epilepsy treatment through its attenuation of neuronal loss and glial activation.