Grape polyphenols supplementation reduces muscle atrophy in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.
Nutrition. 2015 Oct ;31(10):1275-83. Epub 2015 May 29. PMID: 26333892
OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols (PP) have demonstrated beneficial effects on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress; however, little is known about their effect on highly inflamed muscle. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate muscle alteration induced by high-grade inflammation, and (ii) to test the effects of red grape PP supplementation on these alterations.
METHODS: We used a transgenic mice model (transforming growth factor [TGF] mice) to develop a high T cell-dependent inflammation and C57 BL/6 control (CTL) mice model. Skeletal muscles of TGF and CTL mice were investigated for inflammation, atrophy and oxidative stress markers. Isolated mitochondria from hindlimb muscles were used for respiration with pyruvate as substrate and oxidative damages were measured by Western blot. TGF mice were supplemented with a mixture of red grape polyphenols (50 mg/kg/d) for 4 wk. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests.
RESULTS: TGF mice presented skeletal muscle inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial alteration and muscle atrophy. Atrophy was associated with two distinct pathways: (i) one linked to inflammation, NF-κB activation and increased ubiquitin ligase expression, and (ii) one dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to damaged mitochondria accumulation and activation of caspase-9 and 3. Supplementation of TGF mice with a mixture of red grape polyphenols (50 mg/kg/d) for 4 wk improved mitochondrial function and highly decreased caspases activation, which allowed muscle atrophy mitigation.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that nutritional dosages of red grape polyphenols might be beneficial for reducing skeletal muscle atrophy, even in a high-grade inflammation environment.