Orthosiphon stamineus Extracts Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Uterine Fibroid Cells
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Oct 26 ;19(10):2737-2744. Epub 2018 Oct 26. PMID: 30360599
Objectives: The effects of water and 50% ethanolic-water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (OS) on cell proliferation and apoptotic activity against uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells were investigated. Methods: Anti-proliferation effect was evaluated through cell cycle analysis whereas apoptotic activity was determined via screening and quantifying using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The effect of extracts on molecular mechanism was studied using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: Cell cycle flow cytometric analysis showed the induction of cell cycle arrests were behaves in a p53-independent manner. The examination using fluorescence microscopy and Annexin V flow cytometry revealed the presence of morphological features of apoptotic bodies. Downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl-2) supports the apoptotic activity of OS extracts although poorly induce PARP-1 cleavage in Western blot analysis. The extracts also inhibit the SK-UT-1 growth by suppressing VEGF-A, TGF-β1 and PCNA genes, which involved in angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that O. stamineus extracts are able to inhibit proliferation and induced apoptosis of uterine fibroid cells and is worth further investigation.