Obese rats supplemented with bitter melon display marked shifts in the expression of genes controlling inflammatory response and lipid metabolism by RNA-Seq analysis of colonic mucosa.
Genes Genomics. 2018 06 ;40(6):561-567. Epub 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 29892950
Obesity is known to induce pathological changes in the gut and diets rich in complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small bowel can alter large bowel ecology. The purposes of this study were to identify the effects of bitter melon powder (BMP) on the global gene expression pattern in the colon mucosa of obese rats. Obese rats were fed a high-fat diet and treated without or with BMP for 8 weeks. Genome-wide expression profiles of the colon mucosa were determined by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis at the end of experiment. A total of 87 genes were identified as differentially expressed (DE) between these two groups (fold change> 1.2). These results were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR, confirming the high reliability of the RNA-Seq. Interestingly, DE genes implicated in inflammation and lipid metabolism were found to be downregulated by BMP in the colon. Network between genes and the top 15 KEGG pathways showedthat PRKCβ (protein kinase C beta) and Pla2g2a (phospholipase A2 group IIA) strongly interacted with surrounding pathways and genes. Results revealed that BMP supplement could remodel key colon functions by altering transcriptomic profile in obese rats.