Oleanolic acid exerts inhibitory effects on the late stage of osteoclastogenesis and prevents bone loss in osteoprotegerin knockout mice.
J Cell Biochem. 2019 Jul 18. Epub 2019 Jul 18. PMID: 31318102
Postmenopausal women undergo rapid bone loss, which caused by the accelerated osteoclastic bone resorption. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) plays critical and essential roles on varied stages of osteoclastogenesis. Oleanolic acid (OA), a naturally derived small compound, has been found suppress osteoclastogenesis in early stage of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). However, whether OA also regulates the late stage of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. Here, the regulatory effect of OA on the late stage of osteoclastogenesis was investigated in vitro using RANKL-pretreated BMMs and in vivo using osteoprotegerin (OPG) knockout mice. Our in vitro studies demonstrate that OA inhibits the late stage of osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-pretreated BMMs. For in vivo animal investigation, OA attenuates the bone loss phenotypes in OPG-knockout mice by decreasing the densities of osteoclast, which are in consistent with the finding with in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistic investigations found that OA largely inhibit the activity of c-Fos and Nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) with RANKL-pretreated BMMs and OPG-knockout mice. Furthermore, OA suppresses the activities of osteoclast genes, such as Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), CathepsinK (Ctsk), and Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Taken together these findings, they have not only defined an inhibitory effect of OA in the late stage of osteoclastogenesis but have also gained new molecular mechanisms underlying the process of osteoclast formation.