Oleanolic acid reduces aerobic glycolysis-associated proliferation by inhibiting yes-associated protein in gastric cancer cells.
Gene. 2019 Jul 1 ;712:143956. Epub 2019 Jul 1. PMID: 31271843
Gastric cancer represents a common malignancy of digestive tract with high incidence and mortality. Increasing evidence suggests that the growth of gastric tumor cells relies largely on aerobic glycolysis. Currently, many potential anti-cancer candidates are derived from natural products. Here, we evaluated the effects of oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid component widely found in the plants of Oleaceae family, on aerobic glycolysis and proliferation in human MKN-45 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that OA reduced the viability and proliferation of gastric cancer cells and inhibited the expression of cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. OA blocked glycolysis in these cells evidenced by decreases in the uptake and consumption of glucose, intracellular lactate levels and extracellular acidification rate. Glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose, similar to OA, suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation. OA also decreased the expression and intracellular activities of glycolysis rate-limiting enzymes hexokinase 2 (HK2) and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1). Moreover, OA downregulated the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and decreased its nuclear abundance. Upregulation of HIF-1α by deferoxamine rescued OA-inhibited HK2 and PFK1. Furthermore, OA reduced the nuclear abundance of yes-associated protein (YAP) in gastric tumor cells. YAP inhibitor verteporfin, similar to OA, downregulated the expression ofHIF-1α and glycolytic enzymes in gastric cancer cells; whereas overexpression of YAP abrogated all these effects of OA. Collectively, inhibition of YAP was responsible for OA blockade of HIF-1α-mediated aerobic glycolysis and proliferation in human gastric tumor cells. OA could be developed as apromising candidate for gastric cancer treatment.