Comparative Study on Beneficial Effects of Hydroxytyrosol- and Oleuropein-Rich Olive Leaf Extracts on High-Fat Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism Disturbance and Liver Injury in Rats.
Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020:1315202. Epub 2020 Jan 8. PMID: 31998777
Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, as major compounds of olive leaves, have been reported to exert numerous pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the protective effect of oleuropein- and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts, derived from olive leaves, on high-fat diet-induced lipid metabolism disturbance and liver injury in rats. In this respect, four groups of male rats (8 per group) were used: control group (Control), group treated with high-fat diet (HFD), group treated with HFD and oleuropein (HFD + OLE), and group treated with HFD and hydroxytyrosol (HFD + HYD). The current research showed that the treatment with the HFD increased the body weight and adipose tissue mass in male rats. Moreover, the plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT, LDH, andTNF-were also raised. The hepatic immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of inflammatory genes (COX-2, NF-B, and TNF-). Equally, it showed a rise of the apoptotic markers (a decrease in the expression of the Bcl-2 and an increase of the P53). In addition, the oral administration of oleuropein- and hydroxytyrosol-rich olive leaf extracts at 16 mg/kg similarly reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass and improved the lipid profile. Moreover, these extracts, mainly the hydroxytyrosol-rich extract, reduced the elevated liver enzymes, enhanced the antioxidant status, and attenuated the liver inflammation and apoptosis. These findings suggest that the oleuropein- and hydroxytyrosol-rich olive leaf extracts possessed hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects against the HFD-induced metabolic disorders by enhancing the antioxidative defense system and blocking the expression of the proteins involved in inflammation and liver damage.