Omega-3 fatty acids increases adiponectin levels via an increase in gene translation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Adiponectin translation is increased by the PPARgamma agonists pioglitazone and omega-3 fatty acids.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar;296(3):E480-9. Epub 2008 Dec 16. PMID: 19088251
Adiponectin, made exclusively by adipocytes, is a 30-kDa secretory protein assembled posttranslationally into low-molecular weight, middle-molecular weight, and high-molecular weight homo-oligomers. PPARgamma ligand thiozolidinediones, which are widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, increase adiponectin levels. PPARgamma also has several putative ligands that include fatty acid derivatives. Overnight treatment of rat adipocytes with pioglitazone, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) triggered a twofold increase in the synthesis and secretion of HMW adiponectin, and this increase was blocked by the addition of PPARgamma inhibitor GW-9662. Inhibition of glycosylation using 2,2'-dipyridyl decreased the synthesis of high-molecular weight adiponectin by pioglitazone, EPA, and DHA, but there was increased secretion of trimeric adiponectin resulting from increased translation. Although pioglitazone, DHA, and EPA increased adiponectin synthesis by more than 60%, there was no increase in total protein synthesis and no corresponding change in adiponectin mRNA expression, indicating the upregulation of translation. We examined the possibility of transacting factors in the cytoplasmic extracts from adipocytes treated with pioglitazone or DHA. In vitro translation of adiponectin mRNA was inhibited by S-100 fraction of control adipocytes and increased by S-100 extracts from adipocytes treated with pioglitazone or DHA. Consistent with this observation, both pioglitazone and DHA treatments increased the association of adiponectin mRNA with the heavier polysome fractions. Together, these data suggest that pioglitazone and the fish oils DHA or EPA are PPARgamma agonists in adipocytes with regard to adiponectin expression, and the predominant mode of adiponectin stimulation is via an increase in translation.