Abstract Title:

Onion and garlic extracts lessen cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Abstract Source:

Biometals. 2008 Dec;21(6):623-33. Epub 2008 Jun 3. PMID: 18521705

Abstract Author(s):

Stephen M Suru

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. mendelcv@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract:

Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxicant inducing kidney damage via oxidative stress. Since kidney is the critical target organ of Cd toxicity, this study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) aqueous extracts on Cd-induced renal oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. The control group received double distilled water alone and Cd group was challenged with 3CdSO4 x 8H2O (as Cd) (1.5 mg/100 g bw/day per oral) alone. Extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bw/day per oral) of onion and/or garlic extract for 1 week after which they were co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bw/day per oral) for 3 weeks. The results showed that the levels of renal lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) were significantly (P<0.001) increased in rats that received Cd alone relative to the control group. More so, the levels of renal glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Na+/K+-ATPase were significantly (P<0.001) decreased in rats that received Cd alone. Treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract significantly (P<0.05) restored the alterations in these parameters relative to the group that received Cd alone. While treatment with high dose of onion extract exerted a significant dose-dependent restoration of these parameters, treatment with high dose of garlic elicited a pro-oxidant effect, relative to their respective low dose. Our study suggests that onion and garlic extracts may exert their protective effects via reduction in LPO and enhanced antioxidant defense. These extracts may, therefore, be useful nutritional option in alleviating Cd-induced renal damage.

Study Type : Animal Study

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