Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPC) exert anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 2008 Jul 28. PMID: 18663730
BACKGROUND: Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPC) are extracted from grape seeds or maritime pine bark and have been used for enhancement of capillary stability and lymphatic drainage. Since a role for OPC in cancer prevention was postulated, we asked whether they have an effect on prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Cell proliferation was determined by (3)H-thymidine assay and cell cycle status was analyzed on a flow cytometer. Expression of regulators of proliferation and apoptosis was determined by Western blot. RESULTS: We found that androgen-responsive cells LNCaP are more sensitive to OPC in terms of inhibition of proliferation in comparison to androgen receptor-negative PC3 or DU145 cells. Treatment with OPC resulted in a decrease in the percentage of LNCaP cells in the S phase and an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G1 phase. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of OPC in the LNCaP cell line was associated with down-regulation of expression of the androgen receptor. Interestingly, similar regulatory effects of OPC, such as inhibition of expression of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins and stimulation of tumor suppressors p21 and p27, were seen in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Favorable changes in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were observed in LNCaP and PC3 cells after the treatment with OPC. OPC caused an increase of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase p44 and p42, thus suggesting induction of cellular differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that OPC is a candidate that fulfills criteria for chemopreventive strategies in prostate cancer that might be established in following in vivo studies. Prostate (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.