Optimization of the saffron compound essence formula and its effect on preventing skin photoaging.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10. PMID: 33973339
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to optimize the formula of saffron compound essence (SCE), and investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of SCE against skin photoaging.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The formula of SCE was optimized using single factor and orthogonal experiments. The optimized SCE was then applied on the back skin of mice under ultraviolet irradiation. The protective effect and possible mechanism of SCE on skin photoaging were investigated using macroscopic and histological evaluation, skin thickness tests, determination of skin microcirculation, and the skin content determination of type I and III collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and extracellular regulatory protein kinase (ERK1/2) on the skin of each group of photoaging mice model.
RESULTS: The SCE prepared using the optimal formula was golden yellow, uniform, fine, and viscous. The obtained results in the SCE high dose group indicated that SCE can inhibit the generation of wrinkles, decrease the skin thickness, reduce the microcirculation blood flow of the back skin of mice, alleviate the proliferation and abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers and elastic fibers, increase the content of skin type I and III collagen, up-regulate the expression MMP-2 protein, and down-regulate the expression ERK1/2 protein, when compared with the shave control group.
CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study have indicated that the optimized SCE has the effect of preventing skin photoaging, and its mechanism may be associated with the ERK1/2 pathway. Therefore, SCE should be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for preventing photoaging.