Oridonin enhances the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in renal carcinoma cells by inducting necroptotic death.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Oct ;106:175-182. Epub 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29958141
BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used for the treatment of renal carcinoma. However, drug resistance remains the reason for failure of chemotherapy. Oridonin, extracted from Chinese herb medicine, displays anti-tumor effect in several types of cancer. Whether oridonin could enhance the effect of 5-FU in renal carcinoma has not been studied.
METHODS: 786-O cells were used in the current study. Cell death was measured by MTT assay or live- and dead-cell staining assay. Glutathione (GSH) level was examined by ELISA. Necroptosis was identified by protein levels of receptors interaction protein-1 (RIP-1) and RIP-3, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release, and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (Parp-1) activity. Using a xenograft assay in nude mice, we tested the anti-tumor effects of the oridonin combined with 5-FU.
RESULTS: 5-FU only induced apoptosis in 786-O cells. Oridonin activated both apoptosis and necroptosis in 786-O cells. Oridonin-induced necroptosis was reversed by addition of GSH or its precursorN-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oridonin-induced necroptosis was associated by activated JNK, p38, and ERK in 786-O cells, which were abolished by GSH or NAC treatment. However, JNK, p38, and ERK inhibitors showed no effect on oridonin induced-cell death. GSH or NAC treatment partly abolished the synergistic effects of oridonin and 5-FU on cell death. Oridonin enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Oridonin enhances the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in renal cancer cells partially through inducing necroptosis, providing evidence of using necroptosis inducers in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment.