Oridonin induces G/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in hormone-independent prostate cancer cells.
Oncol Lett. 2017 Apr ;13(4):2838-2846. Epub 2017 Feb 20. PMID: 28454475
Oridonin is an active constituent isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, which exerts antitumor effects in experimental and clinical settings. However, its antitumor effects and underlying mechanisms on prostate cancer cells have not yet been clearly identified. In the present study, the androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cell lines were used as models to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of oridonin on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Results demonstrated that oridonin inhibited cellular proliferation, and was able to significantly induce G/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Detailed signaling pathway analysis by western blotting demonstrated that the expression levels of p53 and p21 were upregulated, whereas the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was downregulated following oridonin treatment, which led to cell cycle arrest in the G/M phase. Oridonin also upregulated the proteolytic cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 were decreased and those of Bcl-2-associated X protein were increased following oridonin treatment. In addition, oridonin treatment significantly inhibited the expression of phosphoiniositide-3 kinase (PI3K) p85 subunit and the phosphorylation of Akt. The downstream gene murine double minute 2 was also downregulated, which may contribute to the elevated expression of p53 following oridonin treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that oridonin is able to inactivate the PI3K/Akt pathway and activate p53 pathways in prostate cancer cells, resulting in the suppression of proliferation and the induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis.