Osteoprotective effects of kefir fortified with omega-3 and vitamin C. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Osteoprotective effects of kefir fortified with omega-3 and vitamin C in ovariectomized rats.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2021 Jun 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 24. PMID: 34162225
Nutritional interventions can be valuable for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of kefir fortified with omega-3 and vitamin C on the bone and uterus parameters of ovariectomized rats. Seventy-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham-operated. The ovariectomized rats were assigned to six groups and received 1 ml/day of distilled water (OVX group), milk, kefir, kefir fortified with omega-3 (kefir+ω3), kefir fortified with vitamin C (kefir+vit-C) or kefir fortified with omega-3 and vitamin C (kefir+ω3+vit-C) for 12 weeks. The sham group also received 1ml/day of distilled water. Subsequently, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of various bones were assessed. Femurs anduteri were harvested for bone ash analysis and histopathological examinations, respectively. Sera were analyzed for carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, calcium, phosphorous, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and total antioxidant capacity levels. Ovariectomy resulted in significant reduction in bone density (P<0.05). Kefir+ω3+vit-C significantly improved BMC of lumbar spine (0.699±0.027 g compared with 0.580±0.018 in the OVX group), and kefir, kefir+vit-C and kefir+ω3+vit-C significantly increased BMD of tibia (0.118±0.003 g/cm, 0.119±0.001 and 0.120±0.004 compared with 0.102±0.005 in the OVX group). Moreover, ovariectomy markedly elevated TNF-α level, which was significantly reversed by kefir+ω3+vit-C. Significant atrophy of the uterus was observed following ovariectomy, although the uterus parameters did not change by anyof the interventions. In conclusion, kefir fortified with omega-3 and vitamin C may have protective effects against bone loss through suppressing inflammation.