Metabolic Regulation of Glycolysis and AMP Activated Protein Kinase Pathways during Black Raspberry-Mediated Oral Cancer Chemoprevention.
Metabolites. 2019 Jul 11 ;9(7). Epub 2019 Jul 11. PMID: 31336728
Thomas J Knobloch
Oral cancer is a public health problem with an incidence of almost 50,000 and a mortality of 10,000 each year in the USA alone. Black raspberries (BRBs) have been shown to inhibit oral carcinogenesis in several preclinical models, but our understanding of how BRB phytochemicals affect the metabolic pathways during oral carcinogenesis remains incomplete. We used a well-established rat oral cancer model to determine potential metabolic pathways impacted by BRBs during oral carcinogenesis. F344 rats were exposed to the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in drinking water for 14 weeks, then regular drinking water for six weeks. Carcinogen exposed rats were fed a 5% or 10% BRB supplemented diet or control diet for six weeks after carcinogen exposure. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis on rat tongue, and mass spectrometry and NMR metabolomics analysis on rat urine were performed. We tentatively identified 57 differentially or uniquely expressed metabolites and over 662 modulated genes in rats being fed with BRB. Glycolysis and AMPK pathways were modulated during BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. Glycolytic enzymes,,,,, andas well as the PKA-AMPK pathway genes,,,, andwere downregulated by BRBs during oral cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, the glycolysis metabolite glucose-6-phosphate decreased in BRB-administered rats. Our data reveal the novel metabolic pathways modulated by BRB phytochemicals that can be targeted during the chemoprevention of oral cancer.