Inhibition of LPS-Induced Oxidative Damages and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects ofExtract via Down-Regulating NF-κB, COX-2, and iNOS in RAW 264.7 Cells.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Aug 2 ;8(8). Epub 2019 Aug 2. PMID: 31382466
Hui Min-David Wang
is an edible nutraceutical and functional food in the Asia area with medicinal and nutritive importance. The fruit extract ofis currently considered to be one of the effective functional foods for flesh maintenance and disease treatments because of its antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We examined the antioxidant abilities of the fruit extract powder by carrying out 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, iron reducing power, and metal chelating activity analysis and showed excellent antioxidative results. In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the result showed that the samples had no cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells even at a high concentration of 2 mg/mL. To investigate its immunomodulatory function, our estimation was to treat it with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 cells to present anti-inflammatory capacities. The extract decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production levels in a dose-dependent manner measured by flow cytometry. We also examined various inflammatory mRNAs and proteins, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting assay, all three targets were decreased by the extract, also in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion,fruit extract powder not only lessened antioxidative stress damages, but also inhibited inflammatory reactions.