Paeoniflorin improves the permeability of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
[Paeoniflorin improves the permeability of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells by regulating Src/vascular endothelial-cadherin pathway].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020 Jan ;32(1):83-87. PMID: 32148237
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of paeoniflorin on the permeability of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in sepsis.
METHODS: Primary rat CMECs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the cells in the logarithmic growth phase were used for experiments. Tetramethylazozolium colorimetry (MTT) was used to screen the safe and effective concentrations of paeoniflorin at 10, 20, and 40μmol/L. The cells were divided into blank control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group and low, medium and high concentration paeoniflorin pretreatment group. The cells in the blank control group were cultured in complete medium; the cells in the LPS group were challenged with LPS (1 mg/L) in complete medium; and the cells in the paeoniflorin pretreatment groups were pretreated with 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L paeoniflorin at 4 hours before LPS stimulation. The cells in each group were further cultured for 24 hours after LPS stimulation. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method was used to detectthe permeability of rat CMECs. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL1, CXCL2) levels in the cell supernatant. The real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the cells. Western Blot was used to detect phosphorylated Src (p-Src), vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (p-MAPK).
RESULTS: Compared with the blank control group, the permeability of rat CMECs in the LPS group was significantly increased. The cell permeability was improved to some extent after paeoniflorin pretreatment at different concentrations, and the improvement was most obvious in the 40μmol/L paeoniflorin group, with statistically significant difference as compared with the LPS group (A value: 1.61±0.07 vs. 2.13±0.06, P<0.01). ELISA results showed that there were moderate amounts of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the cell supernatant of rat CMECs in the blank control group. However, the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the cell supernatant was increased significantly under the induction of LPS. After pretreatment with paeoniflorin at different concentrations, the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the cell supernatant was significantly reduced. The most obvious inhibitory effect on CXCL1 was 40μmol/L paeoniflorin, and the most obvious inhibition on CXCL2 was 20 μmol/L paeoniflorin, the differences were statistically significant as compared with the LPS group [CXCL1 (ng/L): 337.51±68.04 vs. 829.86±65.06, CXCL2 (ng/L): 4.48±0.11 vs. 9.41±0.70, both P<0.01]. RT-qPCR results showed that the mRNA expressions of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the rat CMECs were consistent with the ELISA results. LPS could increase mRNA expressions of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the rat CMECs, and pretreatment with different concentrations of paeoniflorin could significantly reduce the mRNA expressions of CXCL1 and CXCL2. The 40μmol/L paeoniflorin had the best inhibitory effect on CXCL1 mRNA expression, and the 20 μmol/L paeoniflorin had the best inhibitory effect on CXCL2 mRNA expression, the differences were statistically significant as compared with the LPS group [CXCL1 mRNA (2): 0.543±0.004 vs. 0.812±0.089, CXCL2 mRNA (2): 10.52±0.71 vs. 17.68±1.09, both P<0.01]. Western Blot results showed that moderate amounts of p-Src, VE-cadherin and p-MAPK proteins were expressed in the rat CMECs in the blank control group. After LPS stimulation, the expressions of p-Src and p-MAPK proteins were increased significantly, while the expression of VE-cadherin protein was decreased significantly. After pretreatment with different concentrations of paeoniflorin, the expressions of p-Src and p-MAPK proteins in the cells were decreased to varying degrees, while the expression of VE-cadherin protein was increased, and 40μmol/L paeoniflorin had the most obvious effect, the differences were statistically significant as compared with the LPS group [p-Src protein (p-Src/GAPDH): 1.02±0.09 vs. 1.29±0.05, p-MAPK proteins (p-MAPK/GAPDH): 0.24±0.02 vs. 0.62±0.02, VE-cadherin protein (VE-cadherin/GAPDH): 0.64±0.03 vs.0.31±0.02, all P<0.01].
CONCLUSIONS: Paeoniflorin can regulate the Src/VE-cadherin pathway in CMECs, inhibit the expression and secretion of inflammation-related proteins and chemokines, and improve the cell permeability of CMECs induced by LPS.