Palmitoylethanolamide Reverses Paclitaxel-Induced Allodynia in Mice.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016 Nov ;359(2):310-318. Epub 2016 Sep 8. PMID: 27608657
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a serious complication associated with antineoplastic drugs. Although there are no medications available that effectively prevent CIPN, many classes of drugs have been used to treat this condition, including anticonvulsants, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and opioids. However, these therapeutic options yielded inconclusive results in CIPN clinical trials and produced assorted side effects with their prolonged use. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop efficacious and safe treatments for CIPN. In this report, we tested whether the endogenous lipid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) alone or in combination with the anticonvulsant gabapentin would reduce allodynia in a mouse paclitaxel model of CIPN. Gabapentin and PEA reversed paclitaxel-induced allodynia with respective EDdoses (95% confidence interval) of 67.4 (61.52-73.94) and 9.2 (8.39-10.16) mg/kg. Isobolographic analysis of these drugs in combination revealed synergistic antiallodynic effects. The PPAR-α antagonist receptor antagonist GW6471 [N-((2S)-2-(((1Z)-1-methyl-3-oxo-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)prop-1-enyl)amino)-3-(4-(2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)propanamide] completely blocked the antinociceptive effects of PEA. In addition, PEA administered via intraplantarinjection into a paw, intrathecal injection, and intracerebroventricular injection reversed paclitaxel-induced allodynia, suggesting that it may act at multiple sites in the neuroaxis and periphery. Finally, repeated administration of PEA (30 mg/kg, 7 days) preserved the antiallodynic effects withno evidence of tolerance. These findings taken together suggest that PEA possesses potential to treat peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.