Paraquat-activated BV-2 microglia induces neuroinflammatory responses in the neuron model through NF-κB signaling pathway.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2021 Apr ;72:105076. Epub 2021 Jan 4. PMID: 33412245
Paraquat (PQ), a non-selective contact herbicide, has been generally accepted as one of the environmental neurotoxicants. Despite the direct evidence that PQ could induce inflammation responses in microglia, little is known about the effects of the inflammatory microglia on neurons. Thus in the present study, mouse primary cortical neurons and PC12 cells, widely-used in vitro neuron models for neurotoxicity research were applied to investigate the neuroinflammatory effects of PQ-activated microglia on neurons. We observed that the secretion levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in PC12 cells were markedly increased upon treatment with the supernatants of inflammatory BV2 microglia, and NF-κB p65 protein expression was also elevated. Specific inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC dramatically attenuated the increase of TNF-α and IL-6 release. These results suggested that PQ-induced inflammatory microglia exerts secondary inflammatory effects on neurons through activation of NF-κB pathway.