Particulate air pollution exposure during pregnancy and postpartum depression symptoms in women in Mexico City.
Environ Int. 2020 Jan ;134:105325. Epub 2019 Nov 21. PMID: 31760258
Megan M Niedzwiecki
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD), which affects up to 1 in 5 mothers globally, negatively impacts the health of both mothers and children. Exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to depressive symptoms in animal models and human studies, but the relationship between air pollution and PPD has not been widely studied.
METHODS: In a birth cohort in Mexico City (509 mothers with available data), we examined the association between exposure to particulate matter≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM) with symptoms of psychological dysfunction at 1 and 6 months postpartum. Daily PMestimates were derived from a hybrid satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved model and averaged over pregnancy and the first year postpartum. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores at 1 and 6 months were used to assess the relationship between PMexposure and probable PPD (EPDS score≥13) using relative risk regression and symptoms of anhedonia, depression, and anxiety (derived from EPDS subscales) using negative binomial regression.
RESULTS: A 5-μg/mincrease in average PMexposure during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PPD at 6 months (RR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.28) and of late-onset PPD (no PPD at 1 month, PPD at 6 months) (RR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.40 to 4.73) in covariate-adjusted models. No association was observed between PMexposure in the first year postpartum and PPD. Average PMexposure during pregnancy was also associated with increased 6-month EPDS subscale symptom scores for anhedonia (p = 0.03) and depression (p = 0.04).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in women in Mexico City, particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is positively associated with PPD and symptoms of anhedonia and depression at 6 months postpartum. Future studies should examine mechanisms linking air pollution and other environmental exposures during pregnancy with postpartum psychological functioning.