Paternal Inheritance of Bisphenol A Cardiotoxic Effects: The Implications of Sperm Epigenome.
Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 20 ;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20. PMID: 33672782
Parental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to a greater incidence of congenital diseases. We have demonstrated that BPA induces in zebrafish males an increase in the acetylation of sperm histones that is transmitted to the blastomeres of the unexposed progeny. This work is aimed to determine whether histone hyperacetylation promoted by paternal exposure to BPA is the molecular mechanism underlying the cardiogenesis impairment in the descendants. Zebrafish males were exposed to 100 and 2000µg/L BPA during early spermatogenesis and mated with non-exposed females. We analyzed in the progeny the expression of genes involved in cardiogenesis and the epigenetic profile. Once the histone hyperacetylation was confirmed, treatment with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an inhibitor of histoneacetyltransferases, was assayed on F1 embryos. Embryos from males exposed to 2000 µg/L BPA overexpressed the transcription factorand the receptor, showing their own promoters-as well as that of-an enrichment in H3K9ac. In embryos treated with EGCG, both gene expression and histone acetylation (global and specific) returned to basal levels, and the phenotype was recovered. As shown by the results, the histone hyperacetylated landscape promoted by BPA in the sperm alters the chromatin structure of the progeny, leading to the overexpression of the histone acetyltransferase and genes involved in cardiogenesis.