Inhibitory Effects of Pectinase-Treated Prunus Mume Fruit Concentrate on Colorectal Cancer Proliferation and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Cells.
J Food Sci. 2019 Nov ;84(11):3284-3295. Epub 2019 Oct 16. PMID: 31618463
Pectinase is a well-known enzyme used in the food processing industry to produce fruit juice and concentrate. This study evaluated the anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities of pectinase-treated Prunus mume fruit concentrate (PC) and its phenolic components. PC treatment (250 to 1,000 µg/mL) resulted in decreased proliferation of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells through S-phase cell cycle arrest; however, equivalent concentrations of PC did not show toxicity toward CRL-1539 colon normal cells. Furthermore, PC-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SW480 cells, which was characterized by accumulation of apoptotic cell population, cell shrinkage, formation of apoptotic bodies, upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, cleaved PARP, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2. Antiangiogenesis effects of PC were assessed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that PC did not inhibit HUVECs proliferation at concentrations of 500 to 1,500 µg/mL. In addition, treatment with PC at nontoxic concentrations (500 to 1,000 µg/mL) blocked vascular endothelial growth factor induced cell migration, invasion, capillary-like tube formation, and angiogenesis from rat aortic rings. HPLC-PDA analysis showed that there were at least four different phenolics including 5-HMF, neochlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and syringic acid. Taken together, these results indicated that PC could be used as a good source of phenolic compounds with selective anticancer and antiangiogenesis activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Pectinases are one of the well-known enzyme used in the part of food processing. Treatment of pectinase is a useful strategy to reduce viscosity, turbidity, and pulp particles in the production of fruit juice, extract, and concentrate. In the present study, we found that pectinase-treated P. mume fruit concentrate significantly suppresses colorectal cancer proliferation and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The significance of our findings is that pectinase-treated P. mume concentrate may be used as a commercial functional food material to inhibit colorectal cancer and angiogenesis.