-FermentedInhibits Inflammatory Reactions and Alleviates Contact Dermatitis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Nov 7 ;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7. PMID: 30405049
is a medicinal mushroom used to treat immune-related diseases in East Asia. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract ofgrown on germinated(GRC) fermented withON89A isolated from onion (GRC-ON89A) in vivo as well as in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of GRC-ON89A was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in the GRC-ON89A ethanol extract were significantly increased compared to that in GRC. GRC-ON89A hexane fraction (GRC-ON89A-Hex) inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) compared to that of the LPS-treated control without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. GRC-ON89A-Hex decreased the inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, pre-treatment with GRC-ON89A-Hex significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. To induce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was applied to the surface of the right ears of C57BL/6N mice. GRC-ON89A reduced the ear swelling and thickness in DNFB-induced ACD mice. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of GRC-ON89A as an anti-inflammatory dietary supplement or drug.