Perillaldehyde ameliorates aspergillus fumigatus keratitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Perillaldehyde Ameliorates Aspergillus fumigatus Keratitis by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway and Inhibiting Dectin-1-Mediated Inflammation.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 Jun 3 ;61(6):51. PMID: 32579678
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of perillaldehyde (PAE) on Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis.
Methods: Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were pretreated with PAE and stimulated with A. fumigatus mycelium. C57BL/6 mice were infected with A. fumigatus and treated with or without PAE 1 day after infection. Clinical scores, PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, dendritic cell-associated c-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) like 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase (HO-1). Nrf2 expression in HCECs pretreated with PAE was observed by immunofluorescence. NIMP-R14 protein expression and localization in mouse corneas were observed by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with PAE. Corneal colony counting, time-kill tests, and mycelial transformation inhibition tests were used to evaluate the antifungal effect of PAE.
Results: C57BL/6 mice treated with PAE at 1 day after infection had a lower clinical score and decreased IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, Dectin-1, and MPO levels. PAE treatment significantly reduced neutrophil recruitments to the corneal stroma. Compared with the DMSO-treated group, PAE treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Dectin-1 in HCECs. PAE pretreatment before A. fumigatus stimulation obviously elevated the mRNA and protein levels of components of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis. HCECs pretreated with PAE before infection showed a weakened ability to inhibit inflammation in the presence of brusatol (BT; an Nrf2 inhibitor) or ZnPP (an HO-1 inhibitor). PAE treatmentsignificantly reduced the fungal load of C57BL/6 mouse corneas and inhibited fungal growth in vitro.
Conclusions: These data proved that PAE may ameliorate A. fumigatus keratitis by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and inhibiting the Dectin-1 mediated inflammatory response and neutrophil recruitment. Furthermore, PAE exerts direct fungicidal activity on A. fumigatus.